Heat oven to 350 degrees F.
Spray two sheet pans with nonstick cooking spray or line with parchment paper.
In a large bowl, whisk together flour, cocoa powder, baking soda, and salt. Set aside.
Using a standing or hand mixer, beat butter and sugar until light and fluffy.
Add vanilla and eggs and gently mix until combined, ~1 minute more.
Add dry ingredients in three increments, mixing for 1 minute between each addition. Continue mixing on low until just combined.
Transfer cookie dough to the refrigerator for 10 minutes. (The dough will firm up slightly which will make it easier to roll.
While the dough chills, unwrap the soft caramels. Set the unwrapped caramels on wax paper to keep them from sticking.
Form the cookies by taking a golf-ball sized portion of chocolate dough and rolling it into a ball. Press between your palms to flatten slightly and place a soft caramel in the middle. Roll the dough around the caramel and place the cookie dough on the prepared sheet pan. Continue with the remaining dough / caramels, leaving at least 4 inches between each cookie (they will spread out as they bake).
Bake the cookies until the edges are crisp and the centers are still soft, 9 to 11 minutes.
As soon as the cookies come out of the oven, sprinkle them with salt. Allow them to cool on the sheet pan for 5 minutes before transferring to a cooling rack to cool completely.
Store cookies at room temperature for up to 4 days.